Methods for administering drugs are divided into parenteral (minuyuschie gastrointestinal tract) and enteral (via the gastrointestinal tract).

This method of drug administration determines the speed of onset of effect, its intensity, duration and course of action.In order to understand this specific example, consider the drug "diclofenac" - analgesic.This medication is available in tablets and enteric-coated as a solution for injection.While in the first case, the drug, overcoming the gastrointestinal tract, the blood is absorbed and starts to act only after 2-3 hours, while in the second case, the "Diclofenac" immediately enters the blood and has an effect in 10-15 minutes.

enterally



There are several methods: oral (by mouth), sublingual (under the tongue), buccal (cheek), rectal (rectum)
, vaginal (through the vagina) and urethral (through the urethra).Enteral methods are convenient because they do not require the possession of special medical skills, safe and rarely cause complications.

oral method is the most simple and common.Oral used most preparations: tablets, capsules, pills, powders, solutions, syrups, teas, and so forth.The oral route of administration provides a slow manifestation of the effect, which is especially important when taking long-acting drugs.

sublingual and buccal formulations are absorbed more quickly.This is due to an active blood supply to mucous tongue and cheeks.However, such methods of the drugs may cause irritation of the mouth.

For rectal, vaginal or urethral administration methods drugs do not undergo degradation by enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract.However, these methods are inconvenient and are applied only in cases where no other.Thus administered candles, ointments, capsules, suspensions and solutions.

Parenteral methods



In this case, the drugs are administered subcutaneously, intravenously, intramuscularly.A significant disadvantage of these methods - is the need for ownership of primary health care skills.To enter the required medicines sterile syringes, and themselves have to be non-pyrogenic solutions - lack of metabolic products of microorganisms.

However, parenteral methods provide a supply of the drug directly into the bloodstream, and the effect is therefore much faster.Also avoids the negative effect of the preparation on the liver and gastrointestinal tract.

by inhalation



We should also mention the inhalation route.The drug, which is normally packed in aerosol cans, spray small, so it can not only actively absorbed vessels of the mucous membrane of the mouth and nose, but also to penetrate to the alveoli of the lungs.