Inhaled anesthetics



Most anesthetics used during surgical interventions manipulation procedures.Inhaled medications are administered to the patient through the respiratory mask.They have one thing in common - very rapidly eliminated through the lungs.This facilitates the rapid awakening from anesthesia and less depression of consciousness (lethargy, drowsiness) in the first days after anesthesia.These anesthetics include nitrous oxide ("laughing gas"), halothane, desflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane.Nitrous oxide is a colorless gas, odorless.With prolonged use of the anesthetic nitrous oxide reduces the hemoglobin levels, contributes to the appearance of neurological disorders, the development of fetal abnormalities in pregnant women.

halothane - a colorless gas with a sweet odor, it can have negative effects on the liver, so it should
not be used in the human liver.Halothane exerts a dampening effect on the cardiovascular system, so it should be used with caution in patients with cardiac disease.For the latest generation of inhalation anesthetics include isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane.They are deprived of the negative qualities of halothane and nitrous oxide.The only contraindication to its use is malignant hyperthermia.

neingalyatsionnyh anesthetics



neingalyatsionnyh anesthetics are administered to a patient directly into the blood (through a vein).These drugs include "Propofol", "Thiopental sodium", "Kalipsol," "sodium hydroxybutyrate.""Propofol" - a modern drug, it allows the patient to quickly wake up from anesthesia.The only contraindication to its use is allergic to the tool, as well as soy and chicken egg.It is also not recommended to use this drug in pregnant women and children up to 3 years.

¬ęThiopental sodium" is contraindicated in detecting hypersensitivity to the drug, in patients with porphyria, asthma.This drug should be used with caution in patients with hypertension, sepsis, coronary heart disease, end-stage liver and kidney failure.Anesthetic "Kalipsol" should be used with caution in patients with ischemic heart disease, severe hypertension, aneurysm.This drug in rare cases can cause psychosis, sometimes at the stage of awakening it causes hallucinations.A risk factor is the rapid introduction of anesthesia, advanced age.

For local anesthesia is used individual group of drugs.Modern local anesthetics ("Bupivacaine", "Ropivacaine") are considered to be relatively safe means.The main contraindication to its use is allergic to these drugs.The caution should be applied when heart block, severe congestive heart failure, hypotension.