discovery of penicillin




discovery of penicillin was indeed a fluke.The scientist, professor and later Nobel laureate Alexander Fleming, at the beginning of the last century, lived and worked in Scotland.During the Second World War, he worked as a doctor in a military hospital.While people died of septicemia and gangrene, despite the fact that the operations have been carried out successfully.Fleming was eager to find a drug that would be able to prevent sepsis.


scientist was somewhat messy and separate from the house, where he conducted experiments in the search for drugs for a long time, left a dirty petri dishes.In them, he conducted bacteriological tests.When he returned, the doctor found that flourished around the mold, and in one of the cups she
killed Staphylococcus aureus.This mold has brought a scientist accidentally from a neighboring laboratory where experiments were conducted with fungi.


These events occurred in 1928 and up to the 40s, Fleming struggled with drug development.Because it was necessary not only to understand how it works, but also to conduct experiments to bring the desired shape and establish drug production.Only in the 41 th year of the first man managed to save from death with penicillin.A mass production of this antibiotic established by 1952.Since then, the penicillin can be purchased at most pharmacies.


How does penicillin




Penicillin is safe for humans and animals, unlike antiseptics.Its action is based on inhibition of bacterial cells that produce peptidoglycan, involved in the construction of cell walls.Penicillin blocks production of the substance, thereby preventing the construction of new bacterial cells and destroying existing.Human cells are not exposed to penicillin, because they have a different structure.


Penicillin today




accepted that penicillin antibiotic obsolete.What he was unable to cope with a large number of pathogenic bacteria that have mutated to adapt to it, forming a new species.This is partially true, but to date created new semisynthetic preparations to which bacteria have not been able to adapt, unlike natural penicillin.


However, surgery is only the antibiotic is able to cope with acute purulent infections.Semi-synthetic antibiotics for the most part unable to cure this infection and their use in the fight against it is useless.Penicillin is often the last hope for diseases such as abrasions, meningitis, pneumonia.Generally it is used in the form of intravenous or intramuscular injection.It is preferable for the body, so suffers less intestinal microflora in contrast to the use of the tablets.