Antidotes are meant to change the properties of poisons, removing these substances from the body and reduce their toxic effects.There are 4 main groups of these drugs: antagonists, chelating agents, complexing agents, biochemical antidotes antagonists, physiological antidotes.Antagonists directly linked to substance-toxicants.They carry out a chemical neutralization of the free circulation of poison, low emission form the complex structure of the receptor is released from the connection with the toxicant, accelerate the elimination of the poison from the body.Among these drugs, antidotes include, for example, "calcium gluconate ', which is used in fluoride poisoning.Intoxication cyanide antidote used "CO2 EDTA" and hydroxocobalamin.
By complexing the chelating agent is a large group of substances th
at accelerate the process of removing toxins from the body.In this case, the formation of low-toxic water-soluble complexes, which are easily excreted through the kidneys.Chemically complexing divided into the following groups: poliaminpolikarbonovyh acid derivatives ("pentatsina", "EDTA", etc.), monotioly (N-atsetilpenitsilamin, D-penicillamine), dithiols ("Unithiol", "ball", 2dimerkaptosuktsinat 3), different ("Prussian Blue", "Desferioksamin" etc.).
biochemical antidotes antagonists displace toxicant of biomolecular target and restore the biochemical processes in the body.These substances include oxygen, which is used in carbon monoxide poisoning, and reversible cholinesterase Reaktivatory cholinesterase inhibitors, used for poisoning fosforooragnicheskimi compounds, pyridoxal phosphate, used in case of poisoning with hydrazine and its derivatives.
physiological antidotes to normalize nerve impulses in the synapses exposed toxicants.When poisoning with scopolamine, atropine and other substances with holinoliticheskoe actively used "galantamine", "aminostigmin", "pyridostigmine."In the case of poisoning by organophosphorus compounds ("dichlorvos", "trichlorfon", "Sarin", "phosphacol") and carbamates ("Baygon", "Neostigmine," "Dioksakarb") prescribed "Atropine" and other anticholinergics.Intoxication GABA policy ("norbornane," "bicuculline" bitsiklofosfaty) using barbiturates, benzodiazepines.With an overdose of narcotic analgesics ("Fentanyl", "Morphine", "Klonitazen") used "Naloxone".
Antidotes - modifiers accelerate metabolism biodetoksikatsiyu substance or prevent the conversion of toxic metabolites in the poison.Helps to speed up the detoxification following drugs: "Sodium thiosulfate" (an antidote to cyanide), "Benzonal" (an antidote to organophosphorus agents) "Acetylcysteine" (antidote dichloroethane, acetaminophen).Metabolic inhibitors include 4-methylpyrazole, ethyl alcohol, which are antidotes of methanol, ethylene glycol.