The causes of neuroblastoma have not been studied until the end, the only significant factor is considered hereditary.Depending on the location and type of cells distinguish between 4 types of neuroblastoma.Melulloblastoma develops deep in the cerebellum, characterized by the rapid development of metastases, causing death of the child.Among the first symptoms of this type of tumor include impaired balance and coordination.
Retinoblastoma affects the retina of the eyes of the child, it leads to blindness and metastasizes to the brain.Neyrofibrosarkoma is a tumor of the sympathetic nervous system.It develops in the abdominal cavity, metastasizes to lymph nodes and bone.Simpatoblastoma - a malignant t
Symptoms of neuroblastoma
Among the first symptoms of neuroblastoma in children include: loss of appetite, pale skin, vomiting, constipation, unreasonable whims.Perhaps the quickening of the pulse, hair loss, the appearance of subfebrile temperature, excessive sweating.As the tumor grows symptoms.When retroperitoneal neuroblastoma stomach increases in circumference, you can see the vascular net in the chest and upper abdomen.
Neuroblastoma in the mediastinum in the initial stages are asymptomatic.With the progression of the tumor is observed its germination in the spinal canal, it causes incontinence of urine and stool, paralysis of the upper and lower extremities.Neuroblastoma metastasizes early, in the case of bone of the skull on the scalp tumor bumps appear.Metastases observed in the liver and increase its roughness.Bone disease manifests pathological fractures.
Diagnosis and treatment of neuroblastoma
To diagnose neuroblastoma examination of the child is carried out by palpation, prescribe urine, blood, perform ultrasound, X-ray, MRI, CT scan.The definitive diagnosis is made by biopsy and histologic examination of tissue.
Treatment of neuroblastoma is performed on the 3rd main directions: by means of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery.As a rule, perform complex treatment using several methods.Surgery can help in the 1st and 2nd stage neuroblastoma.A good effect does radiation therapy.Poor prognosis of the disease is the fourth stage: the five-year survival does not exceed 20%.